[Groovy] How do I handle concurrency and multi-threading in Groovy?

In Groovy, you can handle concurrency and multi-threading using various constructs and libraries. Here are some ways to handle concurrency and multi-threading in Groovy:

  1. Java Thread API: Groovy seamlessly integrates with Java, so you can use the Java Thread API to create and manage threads in Groovy. You can create a new thread by extending the java.lang.Thread class or implementing the java.lang.Runnable interface.
1class MyThread extends Thread {
2    void run() {
3        // thread logic
4    }
5}
6
7def thread = new MyThread()
8thread.start()
  1. Thread.start() and Thread.join(): You can start a thread using the start() method and wait for it to finish using the join() method. This allows you to run multiple threads concurrently and synchronize their execution.
1def thread1 = new Thread({ /* thread1 logic */ })
2def thread2 = new Thread({ /* thread2 logic */ })
3
4thread1.start()
5thread2.start()
6
7thread1.join()
8thread2.join()
  1. ExecutorService and Callable: You can use the java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService interface and java.util.concurrent.Callable interface to submit tasks for execution in a thread pool. Groovy provides a convenient way to work with these interfaces using the java.util.concurrent.Executors class.
1import java.util.concurrent.Executors
2
3def executorService = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(5)
4
5def callable = { -> /* callable logic */ }
6def future = executorService.submit(callable)
7
8executorService.shutdown()
  1. GPars: GPars is a concurrency and parallelism library for Groovy that provides a higher-level abstraction for concurrency. It offers a range of constructs like Pools, Dataflow Variables, and Agents that can simplify concurrent programming.
 1@Grab('org.codehaus.gpars:gpars:1.2.1')
 2
 3import groovyx.gpars.GParsPool
 4
 5GParsPool.withPool {
 6    GParsPool.withPool(5) {
 7        GParsPool.startParallelForEach([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]) { num ->
 8            // parallel logic
 9        }
10    }
11}

These are just a few ways to handle concurrency and multi-threading in Groovy. Depending on your requirements, you can choose the approach that best suits your application.